Describe three differences between RNA and DNA with respect to their chemical composition and structure.

You have formulated a hypothesis that water is necessary for s Show more Multiple Choice Questions: 1. You have formulated a hypothesis that water is necessary for seed germination. To test your hypothesis one set of lettuce seeds is placed in water with warm temperatures and adequate lighting. Another set of identical seeds is placed in the dry under the same set of conditions. The control in the experiment is (a) seeds in the dry (b) seeds in the light (c) warm temperature (d) adequate humidity (e) germination rate 2. A group of medical researchers recently tested the effects of a cholesterol- lowering medication Drug A on men who had high blood levels of cholesterol. The researchers did the following experiment and obtained the indicated results. One group of 150 men took a tablet containing 40 mg of Drug A for 90 days; 120 of this group decreased their blood levels of cholesterol by at least 10 %. Another group of 150 men was given a tablet with no added Drug A for 90 days; 25 of these men decreased their blood levels of cholesterol by at least 10%. Which of the following is the most reasonable and accurate conclusion based on results obtained in this experiment? Drug A is good for men Drug A is found in the blood of men men taking tablets supplemented with Drug A will show a decrease in cholesterol levels in the blood men taking tablets supplemented with Drug A will show an increase in cholesterol levels in the blood blood levels of cholesterol are not affected by oral supplementation of Drug A 3. The sexually transmissible disease syphillis has become increasingly resistant to treatment with antibiotics. What is the most likely scientific explanation? (a) The syphillis bacteria learned to avoid antibiotics (b) The syphillis bacteria changed their genes when they sensed antibiotics (c) Antibiotic-sensitive syphillis bacteria died out but antibiotic-resistant gonorrhea bacteria have flourished and persisted (d) The antibiotic increased the mutation rate in the syphillis bacteria (e) both b and d 4. Which statement best describes the relationship between plants and animals on earth? (a) Plants produce O2 and sugars from CO2 (b) Animals produce CO2 and H2O from sugars and O2 (c) Plants produce O2 and sugars and animals produce CO2 and H2O (d) Animals produce O2 and sugars and plants produce CO2 and H2O 5. Think of the cell as a factory in which the organelles are specialized sites of production. All cells have a power plant the mitochondrion. Plant cells have an additional reactor for the production of usable energy. It is called the _____. (a) golgi body (b) rough endoplasmic reticulum (c) central vacuole (d) vesicle (e) chloroplast 6. A researcher planted seeds from four types of wheat (Types A B C and D) in a greenhouse to determine which type of wheat grew fastest. The plants were grown for 10 days and measured. The results are shown below. Choose the data set that demonstrates that Type C wheat grew the fastest. Use the following information to answer questions 7 & 8 below. A group of medical researchers recently investigated the effects of Drug X on lowering blood pressure in a group of hypertensive middle-aged women. The researchers did the following experiment and obtained the indicated results: One group of 150 women took a tablet containing Drug X for 3 weeks 95 of these women decreased their blood pressure by at least 10% (three women from this group dropped out of the study). Another group of 150 women was given a tablet with no added Drug X for 3 weeks 10 of these women decreased their blood pressure by at least 10% (two women from this group dropped out of the study). Which of the following was the control group in this experiment? the group of participants that received tablets containing Drug X. the group of participants that received tablets that did not contain Drug X the number of participants in each group at the beginning of the experiment the number of participants in each group at the end of the experiment the amount of Drug X contained in the tablet Which of the following is the most reasonable and accurate conclusion based on the results obtained in this experiment? Drug X is good for hypertensive women. Drug X is good for both men and women. Hypertensive women receiving Drug X for 3 weeks may show a decrease in blood pressure. Hypertensive women receiving Drug X for 3 weeks may show an increase in blood pressure. Drug X has no effect on blood pressure. Fill in the Blanks: 9. You find a cell of a type you have never seen before. The cell has both no nucleus and no mitochondria. Therefore you conclude it must be a _______________ cell. (a) prokaryotic (b) liver (c) animal (d) bacterial (e) plant 10. A scientific theory _____________________. (a) is an experiment performed by scientists to understand their observations of nature (b) is an observable fact in nature (c) is an explanation of many observations of nature (d) is an educated guess (e) is an absolute truth that cannot be challenged or changed upon examination of new evidence A substance with a pH less than 7 is ___________ while a substance with a pH greater than 7 is ___________. A ) basic acidic B ) acidic basic C ) basic neutral D ) neutral acidic E ) neutral basic 12. A dog gets many nutrients from its food including amino acids. Which of these can be built directly using the amino acids _________________________. A ) proteins B ) carbohydrates C ) lipids D ) nucleic acids E ) glucose 13. What is the correct sequence of steps in the scientific method? I. Make observations and ask a question II. Analyze the data III. Develop a hypothesis IV. Share the results with other scientists V. Design and perform an experiment to test the hypothesis A) I>II > III > IV > V B) III > I > V > II > IV C) V> IV > III > II > I D) I> III > V >II > IV E) V > II > I > III > IV 14. You have formulated a hypothesis: Apples contain more vitamin C than oranges. To test your hypothesis you measure vitamin C levels in 20 oranges and 20 apples from trees that were grown in the same orchard under the same environmental conditions (temperature rain sunlight). This experiment was conducted twice. The control in the experiment is A) type of soil temperature amount of rain and sunlight in the orchard B) vitamin C levels C) oranges D) apples E) a large sample size and repeated experiment Use below paragraph for next two questions: A group of medical researchers investigated the effects of Drug X on lowering cholesterol levels in a group of men between the ages of 50 and 70 years old. The researchers did the following experiment and obtained the indicated results: One group of 150 men took a tablet containing Drug X for 3 weeks 95 of these men decreased their cholesterol levels by at least 10% (three men from this group dropped out of the study). Another group of 150 men was given a tablet with no added Drug X for 3 weeks 10 of these men decreased their cholesterol levels by at least 10% (two men from this group dropped out of the study). 15. Which of the following is the best hypothesis for this experiment? A) Will drug X lower cholesterol levels in men between the age of 50 and 70 years? B) Drug X will lower cholesterol levels in men. C) Since high cholesterol levels significantly increases several health risks for men drug X is most likely beneficial. D) Men between the age of 50 and 70 years will have reduced cholesterol levels if they take drug X over a 3 week period. E) There is no significant difference in cholesterol levels between men that take drug X and those that dont take it. 16. Which of the following was the control group in this experiment? A) the amount of Drug X contained in the tablet B) the number of participants in each group at the end of the experiment C) the group of participants that received tablets containing Drug X D) the group of participants that received tablets that did not contain Drug X E) the number of participants in each group at the beginning of the experiment 17. Where does the oxygen gas produced during photosynthesis come from? A) water B) ATP C) carbon dioxide (CO2) D) glucose E) the atmosphere 18. Which of the following are polysaccharides? A) RNA and DNA B) Glucose and sucrose C) Cholesterol and vegetable oil D) Glycogen and starch E) Adenine and thymine 19. A chemotherapy drug affects the enzyme DNA polymerase. In which part of the cell cycle does it inhibit cell division? A) Metaphase B) S phase C) G1 D) Cytokinesis E) Prophase 20. The majority of climate scientists believe that the current change in climate is caused predominantly by ________. A) an enhancement of the greenhouse effect B) a decreased reliance on fossil fuels for energy C) a thinning of the ozone layer D) a melting of the polar ice caps E) an increase in solar radiation 21. The liver cells of an animal have 24 chromosomes. How many chromosomes would you expect in this same animal? A) 6 B) 12 C) 24 D) 36 E) 48 22. You are taking a cruise from California to Hawaii. About halfway there the ship begins to sink. You are able to board a lifeboat but now you are floating in the ocean waiting to be rescued. After several days you are so thirsty that you bend over the side of the boat and drink lots of salty seawater. What happens to your body? A) You throw up because sea salt is toxic to humans. B) You get thirstier because of osmosis. C) Salt diffuses into your cells water follows your cells start to expand and you feel bloated. D) Since sea water consist of 96.5% fresh water (and only 3.5% salt) you will feel much better. E) You get dehydrated because water is unable to cross the semi-permeable membranes of your cells. 23. You are spraying your garden with a pesticide and you accidentally swallow a small amount. You read on the package that this pesticide inhibits ATP synthase. Should you be worried? A) ATP synthase is part of the light dependent reaction in photosynthesis; this pesticide will therefore not affect humans. So dont worry! B) ATP…